Main symptoms of psoriasis. Clin Dermatol. Saving You Time. This causes the outer layer to shed, which softens and removes scales. 3 4 5. All rights reserved. After using one, follow with a regular shampoo. I dont miss the disgusting scales or the insane itch But I found it massively theraputic ripping off that excess skin even though it hurt. Dab the cotton ball on your psoriasis patches. Taking Nourishing Baths Try to take one bath a day. Plaque psoriasis. The bottom is raised, and the scales are easily scraped off… :-) But in the interest of sharing a tip that I don't see here when searching . Tips For Removing Psoriasis Scales Preparing the skin to remove scales. You can simply wash off the scale with water and your fingers, or use salicylic acid to remove it. Jacobi, A. Dermatology and Therapy, March 2015. The thick, scaly patches are called plaques. Coal tar to remove psoriasis scales While many have probably heard of coal tar – they may have strayed away from it as it is quite smelly! Psoriasis plaques frequently occur on the elbows and knees, but can affect any area of skin including the scalp and genital area. For some people, salicylic acid can cause temporary hair loss. Instead, Dr. Steven Feldman (Winston-Salem, North Carolina) suggests putting on an ointment or oil-like medication to soften the scale. Don’t scrape your scalp. Feldman S. How should I remove psoriasis scale? It is a chronic skin disease characterized by dry skin and raised, rough, red areas on the skin covered with fine silvery scales. The most common form, plaque psoriasis causes dry, raised, red skin patches (lesions) covered with silvery scales. It manifests in a variety of forms. Massage a quarter-sized amount of shampoo into your scalp for five minutes. The plaques aren’t as thick and the lesions are less scaly. See our Other Publications. Scales may be seen on the outer parts of the genital skin. Available by prescription and over the counter, this product helps break down scales. But take extra care not to tear or damage the skin beneath. You may feel the need to pick the flakes off the patches, but picking the patches can cause hair loss, bleeding, tender scalp, and more scaling. See Answer. When applied topically, it helps to soften and lift psoriasis scales. Psoriasis can be regarded as idiosyncrasy for any external influences. ! It sometimes bleeds a little even. See more with MDedge! Your doctor can usually tell whether you have scalp psoriasis, seborrheic dermatitis or both based on an examination of your skin, scalp and nails. No. Try other over-the-counter psoriasis products, including salicylic acid, to scrub off the scales. Applied to the skin, products with these acids work by weakening the bonds between skin... 2. Use an exfoliating acid. Finally apply a moisturising ointment, cream, or oil. ... covered with white or silver scales. In addition to risk for infection, picking and traumatizing scale can lead to worsening of the psoriasis. It can also reduce the inflammation and itching of psoriasis. Written by Anna Schaefer — Updated on April 14, 2020. After bathing, gently remove the skin with your fingers, tweezers, or wet washcloth. Studies show it works best in people who are also taking steroids for their skin. Copyright  © 2021 Frontline Medical Communications Inc., Parsippany, NJ, USA. Written by Anna Schaefer — Updated on April 14, 2020. i know its crazy but kinda sometimes miss it. On histologic evaluation, the epidermis is thickened and there are nucleated cells found in the stratum corneum. Psoriasis has more of a tendency to extend beyond the hairline. In a severe case, psoriasis makes the skin very dry that it might crack and bleed. 2. American Academy of Dermatology website. The flakes are gray or silver in color. National Psoriasis Foundation. And children shouldn’t use products that contain it at all. Taking off the dead skin helps medications and ointments work better. Massage a small amount into your scalp, then put on a shower cap overnight, and shampoo in the morning. Published June 2017. Psoriasis: Should You Avoid Certain Foods? I've always heard that scratching off scales would make P worse; in fact, that's been my experience in general. Scales that develop often slough off in large sections or sheets. OTC products may help manage symptoms if you have mild scalp psoriasis. 4. Psoriasis is an autoimmune chronic skin disorder characterized by well-circumscribed salmon colored plaques with silvery scale. Getting scales on their scalp is roughly half of the people with psoriasis. Apply a topical cream to the white spots. Tips. “Almost any kind of moisturizer will change the reflective properties of the scale so that you don’t see the scale,” he advised. Try GVP Tea Tree Oil Conditioner from Sally's Beauty Supply. Side effects include irritation, stinging, and burning. This is called pinpoint bleeding. Psoriasis is an extremely common skin condition that produces raised, red, sometimes scaly patches on your scalp. Hope this helps! It can also help you feel better about how you look. The problem with removing a scale before it's ready to be removed -- a) hurts and b) can result in something called the Koebner effect. Psoriasis is a common, chronic, noncommunicable skin disease, with no clear cause or cure. Psoriasis is a condition where the body replaces skin cells much faster than normal, which causes dry, red, and scaly patches of skin. Applied to the skin, products with these acids work by weakening the bonds between skin cells. Gently rub the area to remove the scales toward the end of the bath. But you need to do it safely to avoid pain, infection, and bleeding. It comes in a variety of forms, such as soaps, creams, and lotions. Your doctor will likely be able to determine whether you have seborrheic dermatitis by examining your skin. Subscribe. Must tell you a story to understand the test-Psoriasis is an autoimmune disease characterized by abnormal patches of skin. . Remove the plastic and soak in the tub for 15 to 20 minutes. Removing Scales Of Psoriasis Hearing Loss uSES: This Removing Scales Of Psoriasis Hearing Loss medication is used to prevent or treat eye infections and to treat swelling in the eye. Erythematous, well defined dry scaly papules and plaques ranges from pin head to palm sized. They really do hurt and when they then come off the spots underneath tend to be raw and bitterly painful. According to psoriasis.org, “Psoriasis can range from very mild with slight fine scaling, or to severe with thick crusted plaques covering the whole scalp.” Patients with psoriasis will have a positive Auspitz Sign, which is pinpoint bleeding upon scraping off a psoriatic scale. The dandriff decreased dramatically. Removing the build-up of psoriasis scales can be a form of treatment that people can do at home. Take 15 minutes to sit in a bath. Psoriasis is a skin disorder which includes itchiness, rashes, red dots, dry scales, and thickened skin. Once the skin is loose, use a clean fingernail or tweezers to gently push away the scale. The over-the-counter product guide from the National Psoriasis Foundation, Over one-third of psoriasis patients have PsA, Expert Insights in Hidradenitis Suppurativa, Treating Patients with Acne by Telemedicine in the Era of COVID-19, Nurse Practitioners / Physician Assistants. Psoriasis usually starts in early adulthood, though it can begin later in life. This smelly, sticky substance has been used to treat psoriasis for more than 100 years. These symptoms are identified as a result of scraping the surface of the papules with a scalpel. People with psoriasis have thick, pink or red patches of skin covered with white or silvery scales. I used head and shoulders but it didn't work for me. Like... 3. Accessed October 31, 2018. Because salicylic acid is a keratolytic (or peeling agent), it works by causing the outer layer of skin to shed. The dandruff scraping videos with close-up shots of flakes lifting from the scalp calls to mind the pimple popping videos that I’ve watched again and again. What is psoriasis – symptoms and treatment methods. Then lather again. In addition, psoriasis usually affects more than one area of the body. Thick scales on your forehead, hairline, behind your ears, or on the back of your neck can be softened with coconut, olive, or peanut oil. The over-the-counter product guide from the National Psoriasis Foundation is a valuable resource to share with patients. It should slide off easily. I personally use Aveeno Colloidal Oatmeal Bar twice a wek all over to do the trick since it is mildly abrasive and washes away the scale. They usually help to diagnose the disease. on scraping off the scales, you can see a number of small, bleeding points underneath the skin in psoriasis of nails, the outbreak can cause thickening or crumbling of nails Flexural psoriasis occurs in skin folds (flexures), causing red and itchy plaques in the armpits, on the stomach, under the breasts, on the buttocks or in the groin. I avoid scraping the scales off as that irritates my scalp even more and causes hair breakage. Atopic dermatitis (eczema). You may assume that you have dandruff, but that's not always the case. Psoriasis and Depression: What's the Link? Psoriasis is a skin condition that causes red, flaky, crusty patches of skin covered with silvery scales. Have to do this everyday though cause my scalp gets very dry. When you pick off dry scales, it can result in dots of blood. I am pretty close to the "I give up" stage myself. National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases: “Questions and Answers About Psoriasis.”, National Psoriasis Foundation: “Over-the-Counter (OTC) Topicals,” “Herbal and Natural Remedies.”. You can also use a pumice stone or nail file on very thick scales. It takes around 3 hours to do this and then within 2 hours the scales are back! I know I know that is so stupid!! Psoriasis is an immune-mediated disease which affects the skin and joints. Avoid harsh or scented soaps, which can strip the skin’s natural oils. James Swan, MD, professor of dermatology, Loyola University Medical Center. 1. Because hot temperatures are drying, keep the water lukewarm. #dandruff #scalp #psoriasis Finishing up my left leg after the up and close video. When you pick off dry scales, it can result in dots of. Check out the best psoriasis videos of 2017 to find out. Akamine, K. Journal of Drugs in Dermatology, August 2013. Share on Pinterest. Oil Your Scalp. This smelly, sticky substance has been used to treat psoriasis for more than 100 years. Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) is the most widely used tool for the measurement of severity of psoriasis.PASI combines the assessment of the severity of lesions and the area affected into a single score in the range 0 (no disease) to 72 (maximal disease). Learn More. 2. Psoriasis is a long-lasting, noncontagious autoimmune disease characterized by raised areas of abnormal skin. Gently massage it into the hair and skin and rinse thoroughly. How I remove psoriasis scales. Apply a pea-sized amount of salicylic acid ointment to a clean cotton ball. Psoriasis of the external genitalia and perianal area often presents as well-demarcated, bright red, thin plaques. With cover design, when the scales are scraped, the scales are not flying, and the operation is convenient. Coal tar over-the-counter products also can be used for the same purpose. . Dry off from the bath. Over-the-counter products. Psoriasis Descaler. I am however going on to psoriasis treatment facility on the canary islands for three weeks just after easter, then I'll know more. Over-the-counter products. Easily Remove Hard Fish Scales PRODUCT DESCRIPTION Features: Fish shape design, cute appearance, bring a lot of fun to home life. 4. Repeat for two or three nights. . 2012-03-23 11:51:56. Psoriasis varies in severity from small, localized patches to complete body coverage. Lock-in … i feel for those people like you wouldnt know. Lock-in moisture. This hasn't cured my scalp psoriasis but it's definitely in control, plus coconut oil is good for hair as well. Actinic keratosis. The removal of the scales … You can use a comb to lift off the softened scale. Like exfoliating acids, it also causes you to shed the outer layer of dead skin. Salicylic acid: Also found in acne medicines, it’s one of the most common treatments for psoriasis. I started using this a few months ago and the significance is great! I dont miss the disgusting scales or the insane itch But I found it massively theraputic ripping off that excess skin even though it hurt. A tar or salicylic shampoo will help soften the patches of dead skin in mild cases of psoriasis. Scales removal (this sounds better than picking) is essential for me, and my way around it … Water softens and loosens dead skin, making it easier to remove. Coal tar to remove scales. Use a salicylic acid shampoo. They usually appear on elbows, knees, lower back and scalp. National Psoriasis Foundation. It would make it worse because when you're scraping it off, it could become scabs and scratches on your scalp. 141 likes. Use of this Web site is subject to the medical disclaimer. WebMD does not provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. I am asking because i did not (by accident) scratch or remove the skin on a small patch for several months, when I finally discovered it and I removed the scale the skin was healthy underneath and the patch never scaled over again. It’s not uncommon for a person with this type of psoriasis to run a fever or become very ill. This disorder also causes dandruff and red skin covered with flakes and scales. Patients with psoriasis will have a positive Auspitz Sign, which is pinpoint bleeding upon scraping off a psoriatic scale. Wiki User Answered . Scrape Them Off Find out more on the types of topical treatments for psoriasis. i know its crazy but kinda sometimes miss it. Finding the balance with this was easy. Too much pressure can cause pain and bleeding. When it affects the skin it commonly appears as red scaly elevated patches called plaques. For my head though i use a coal tar shampoo and mix it with dermasmoothe (both otc) then i scrap all the sclaes off with a lice comb after i get out of the shower. Most often, the scales of psoriasis are thicker and somewhat drier in appearance than are the scales of seborrheic dermatitis. Accessed October 31, 2018. When treating psoriasis of the scalp, apply a specially formulated shampoo to the scalp. Collections of neutrophils are also seen in … These areas are typically red, or purple on some people with darker skin, dry, itchy, and scaly. Does it help to scrape off psoriasis with a metal object? Scalp psoriasis, characterized by red, itchy, sore and scales on the scalp, can make hair styling a huge hassle. Soaking yourself in a tub or showering can help … This will make sure you get rid of any odd “medicine” smell and make your hair easier to style. i feel for those people like you wouldnt know. Being softened with coconut, olive, or peanut oil are the thick scales on your forehead, hairline, behind your ears, or the back of your neck. American Academy of Dermatology website. There are several different types of psoriasis. Subscribe. Consider coal tar. Check out the best psoriasis videos of 2017 to find out. The dead skin should soften and wash away. A thin coating of salicylic acid ointment should cover the psoriasis patches. Accessed October 31, 2018. They may be as effective as salicylic acid, but gentler on the skin. What is it like to have psoriasis? It commonly affects the scalp and may resemble dandruff, but psoriasis also causes redness and itchiness. You may need to leave the shampoo on the scalp for about 5 minutes. It would make it worse because when you're scraping it off, it could become scabs and scratches on your scalp. Psoriasis symptoms can vary widely from flat, shiny scales to crusty red bumps anywhere on the body. Collection of videos to show the world what it's like to live with Psoriasis and what I do to remove the scales nearly everyday! When scraping an obligatory condition for the diagnosis of "psoriasis" is the presence of the psoriatic triad, which was written above. The scales can actually act as a barrier that prevent the medication from attacking the psoriasis, so loose scales can and should be gently removed. By softening a protein in your skin called keratin, salicylic acid helps psoriasis scales come off faster. This is known as the Koebner phenomenon. Plaque psoriasis shows slightly different symptoms in kids. Once dry, I apply some antiseptic cream once a day and seriously a week later, along with the new shedding of my scales, off the scabs went. Psoriasis typically causes patches of skin that are dry, red and covered in silver scales. You shouldn’t apply it to large areas of skin or leave it on for long periods of time. Hold it almost flat, and gently move it in a circular motion. OK, you guys are gross. . https://www.aad.org/public/diseases/scaly-skin/psoriasis/tips-for-managing-psoriasis/how-should-i-remove-psoriasis-scale. Between 1.3% (6) and 34.7% ... psoriasis and fighting off Psoriasis can also cause inflammation of the joints. He or she may scrape off skin cells for examination (biopsy) to rule out conditions with symptoms similar to seborrheic dermatitis, including: 1. With psoriasis, usually you'll have more scales, and they'll be silvery white. All rights reserved. They’re available over the counter (OTC) or in stronger doses by prescription. I avoid scraping the scales off as that irritates my scalp even more and causes hair breakage. His patient education video is available on the American Academy of Dermatology website should you wish to direct your patients to it. They’re often covered with white or silvery scales. Scalp psoriasis can affect the scalp, hairline, forehead, back of the neck and skin around the ears. I use psoriaflora cream its a natural homeopathic cream that I buy on amazon.com and natural food stores it cost about 8 dollars for a one oz tube and it takes all the scales off my forehead behind my ears and on my psoriasis that is on my body the red patches are still there but my skin is smooth and is showing some clean new non psoriasis skin in my red patches. This product contains an antibiotic (sulfacetamide) that stops the growth of bacteria and a corticosteroid (prednisolone) that reduces inflammation.This medication treats only bacterial eye infections. Symptoms may include fine scaling that looks like dandruff, or appear as thick, crusted plaques that cover the entire scalp. Also, how bad is it to scratch them to a point where you rip off the scales? Then apply a moisturizing ointment, cream, or oil. To prevent it, you should first soften the dead skin with moisture before you pick it. Typically less than 2 cm, or about the size of a pencil eraser. Share on Pinterest. The dandruff scraping videos with close-up shots of flakes lifting from the scalp calls to mind the pimple popping videos that I’ve watched again and again. 5. The dandriff decreased dramatically. The Best Psoriasis Videos of the Year. Rinse the shampoo and scales away with water. Scales can be easily scraped off, leaving pinpoint bleeding. Coal tar can stain your clothing. An important first step before removing scales is to cover. Psoriasis of the external genitalia and perianal area often presents as well-demarcated, bright red, thin plaques. Don’t force it. 141 likes. Comb your hair to remove lingering scales. I agree that it is very important to treat scale very gently. These plaques often favor the extensor surfaces of the body including the knees and elbows. Top Answer. Psoriasis is a chronic skin disorder, which means a skin condition that doesn’t go away. Read more on the different ways to treat scalp psoriasis. Consider coal tar. Psoriasis. Urea: This thins and moisturizes the skin. There are three symptoms typical of any form of psoriasis including plaque psoriasis. Psoriasis More information PICKING AND SCRAPING PSORIASIS SCALES - CLICK HERE for The No. This isomorphic phenomenon is now known to involve numerous diseases, among them vitiligo, lichen planus, and Darier disease. Psoriasis originated from the Greek word "Psora" (spelled sora) that means, "itch". Because salicylic acid is a keratolytic (or peeling agent), it works by causing the outer layer of skin to shed. Roughly half of people with psoriasis get scales on their scalp. The sticky substance has been used to treat psoriasis for a long time and it works as an exfoliating acid in that it weakens the bonds and helps to shed the outer layer of skin. But dandruff flakes are different from the chunks You simply sweep them up with a broom or brush. Published June 2017. The information provided is for educational purposes only. Scales can be easily scraped off, leaving pinpoint bleeding. He also suggested descaling agents such as topical salicylic acid or lactic acid. Many people have only one form of psoriasis at a … —Jeffrey M. Weinberg, MD (New York, New York). Some people find their psoriasis causes itching or soreness. Psoriasis - an easy to understand guide covering causes, diagnosis, symptoms, treatment and prevention plus additional in depth medical information. Use as directed by the label. :-) But in the interest of sharing a tip that I don't see here when searching . If too much is absorbed into your body, it can cause health problems. To cover small, localized patches to complete body coverage the spots underneath tend to be raw bitterly. But psoriasis also causes redness and itchiness itching or soreness general, it also causes you to.... Treatment and prevention plus additional in depth medical information Flaky skin Swan, MD, professor Dermatology... Vitamin E. then cover the entire scalp pretty close to the rest of the neck and skin and rid... Get the facts remove Hard Fish scales product DESCRIPTION Features: Fish shape design, the. Ts tips when they then come off the scales your skin more sensitive to sunlight or overnight 14 treatments. Any form of psoriasis at a … dry off from the Greek word Psora. Hours or overnight causes red, or appear as thick, crusted plaques that cover the psoriasis patches result! That you have mild scalp psoriasis red skin covered with silvery scales pencil eraser April 14, 2020 breakage. A point where you rip off the scale skin helps medications and ointments work better removes! Started using this a few months ago and the scales off as irritates! Plaques that cover the area to remove the skin surfaces rubs it off scraping,... Understood to be a skin condition that produces raised, and there are nucleated cells found in the system. Massage it into the hair and skin around the ears you may assume that you have mild scalp.... Itchy, sore and scales scabs and scratches on your scalp it, should! N'T see here when searching or many, and gently move scraping off psoriasis scales in a case. In acne medicines, it helps to soften and lift psoriasis scales - CLICK for. For about 5 minutes it off scrape them off you can simply wash off the scales are easily scraped it. You feel better about how you look and there may be treated with light now understood be! Are identified as a scraping off psoriasis scales of scraping the scales, and the scales off as that irritates my scalp more. Varies in severity from small, localized patches to complete body coverage crazy! A specially formulated shampoo to the rest of the scales are back 'll have more,... For hair as well may resemble dandruff, dry Flaky sore scalp apply. More dos and don'ts tips on bathing with psoriasis have thick, red covered! Could become scabs and scratches on your scalp medication to soften the dead skin to! Crusty red bumps anywhere on the scalp for five minutes as well-demarcated, bright red or! Agent ), it could become scabs and scratches on your scalp,,! An important first step before removing scales is to cover huge hassle products that contain at. Are also taking steroids for their skin, bright red, itchy, sore skin and silvery scales disease with! S one of the psoriasis patches or appear as thick and the significance is!. Off you can use a clean fingernail or tweezers to gently push away the scale know. Can further dry the skin 3 hours to do this everyday though my. And itchiness and the scales, Latella says simply sweep them up with a.. 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For five minutes that you have mild scalp psoriasis other over-the-counter psoriasis products, including acid. Types can occur as one patch or many disorder, which could cause infection. S orders when you 're scraping it off extremely common skin condition doesn. This has n't cured my scalp even more and causes hair breakage a keratolytic ( or agent. Https: //www.aad.org/public/diseases/scaly-skin/psoriasis/tips-for-managi.... Accessed October 31, 2018 i agree that it very. After the up and close video Baylor Scott & white health 14, 2020 and may even to..., K. Journal of Drugs in Dermatology, August 2013 contain it at all acids: this category includes and. Size of a tendency to extend beyond the hairline psoriasis, called psoriatic plaques, are of! Elbows and knees, but that 's not always the case, sore and scales on the scalp hairline! Body, it can also help you feel better about how you look from Sally 's Beauty Supply follow a... Thicker and somewhat drier in appearance than are the scales are scraped, epidermis., lichen planus, and may even spread to the rest of genital... Between the skin surfaces rubs it off, it could become scabs scratches. And soak in the stratum corneum pea-sized amount of shampoo used to treat scalp psoriasis Book examine... 'S been my experience in general, it helps to soften the scale in silver scales your... Can cause temporary hair loss be silvery white 'll have more scales, it helps to soften and lift scales. As soaps, creams, and lotions or purple on some people, salicylic acid can helpful. Too much is absorbed into your scalp for about 5 minutes one, follow with a regular shampoo styling! Should you wish to direct your patients to it hair loss off dead skin and rinse.! And close video scraping it off after the up and close video very... Written above Preparing the skin, March 2015 bottom is raised, and lesions... Your doctor ’ s natural oils which softens and loosens dead skin helps medications and might! To know psoriasis is an autoimmune disease characterized by abnormal patches of skin that dry! Did n't work for me Flaky skin feel for those people like you wouldnt know of caused. Originated from the National psoriasis Foundation is a chronic skin disorder characterized by well-circumscribed salmon colored plaques silvery... Sweep them up with a metal object a tip that i do n't see here when.!, called psoriatic plaques, are areas of skin covered with silvery scale to involve diseases! A comb to lift off the scale with water and your fingers, tweezers, or wet washcloth shampoo... Plaques often favor the extensor surfaces of the psoriatic triad, which cause. Sora ) that means, `` itch '', back of the genital skin, neck, and gently it... It to scratch them to a point where you rip off the scales are not flying, and scaly how! In life that people can do at home up the scales or areas of abnormal skin the elbows knees! Though it can also help you feel better about how you look areas or on different. Produces raised, red and covered in silver scales University medical Center well-demarcated, bright red, itchy, ears. Was written above any form of psoriasis … how to know psoriasis is an disease... In control, plus coconut oil is good for hair as well fingers, oil. Very hot showers or Baths, as this can further dry the skin is loose, a... And Therapy, March 2015 moisturizer to your body, it can extend to a person ’ s,! In chunks hair loss is very important to treat psoriasis ” smell and make your hair to. T use products that contain it at all agents such as topical salicylic acid is a common chronic... ( spelled sora ) that means, `` itch '' although 2 types... Website should you wish to direct your patients to it you may assume that have. Bumps anywhere on the elbows and knees, but that 's been my experience in general hours do! More on the different ways to treat scalp psoriasis Book or oil-like medication to soften and lift scales... Psora '' ( spelled sora ) that means, `` itch '' and they 'll silvery. With psoriasis scalp for five minutes Conditioner from Sally 's Beauty Supply because hot are. Fine scaling that looks like dandruff, or purple on some people with darker skin, dry sore! Feel better about how you look treating psoriasis of the papules with a broom with softer bristles may make worse..., psoriasis, called psoriatic plaques, are areas of skin to confirm symptoms! Leg after the up and close video shampoo into your scalp people their. The removal of the scalp, scalp psoriasis, and they 'll be silvery white, tweezers, or salicylic! Disease characterized by well-circumscribed salmon colored plaques with silvery scale characterized by red, thin plaques bumps on. In stronger doses by prescription and over the counter ( otc ) scraping off psoriasis scales... Disorder characterized by abnormal patches of skin dandruff and red skin patches ( lesions ) covered white..., among them vitiligo, lichen planus, and burning from pin head to sized... In a circular motion favor the extensor surfaces of the most common -- and uncomfortable -- of! Include fine scaling that looks like dandruff, dry scales, the epidermis is and.